Axis processing material requirements and technical standards do you know?

2017-11-08  From: China Wanan Industrial Co., Ltd. Browsing times:655

A shaft workpiece blank and material requirements

(1) Shafts required for the workpiece

Shaft workpieces can be based on application requirements, production technology, processing requirements, equipment and the type of structure, the choice of bar, forgings and other rough situation. For the same diameter of the outer diameter of the shaft, the same as the usual bar material; and for large differences in diameter of the outer diameter of the step ladder shaft or an important shaft, often use forgings, which can save material and reduce the machining cut Sales, but also can improve the mechanical function.

According to the different scale of production, the casting method of the blank has two kinds of free forging and forging. Small and medium batch to adopt more free forging methods, high-volume production by die forging method.

(2) Shaft workpiece material requirements

Shaft workpieces should be based on different working conditions and requirements of the use of different materials and take different heat treatment standards (such as quenching, normalizing, quenching, etc.) to obtain a certain strength, toughness and wear resistance.

45 steel is the shaft of the more common parts of the workpiece material, it is cheap and after quenching (or normalizing), you can get better cutting performance, and can get higher strength and toughness, and other mechanical properties, after quenching Surface hardness up to 45 ~ 52HRC.

40Cr and other alloy steel for medium-precision and high speed shaft workpiece, this type of steel after quenching and quenching, will have a better overall mechanical performance.

Bearing steel GCr15 and spring steel 65Mn, after quenched and tempered and the outer surface of the high-frequency quenching, the outer surface hardness up to 50 ~ 58HRC, will have higher fatigue resistance and better wear resistance, can produce high precision axis.

Precision machine tool spindle (such as grinding wheel axis, coordinate boring machine spindle) optional 38CrMoAIA nitride steel. This type of steel after quenching and nitriding on the outer surface not only achieves a very high surface hardness but also ensures a softer core and hence better impact toughness. Compared with carburized hardened steel, it has the characteristics of heat treatment deformation of small, higher hardness.

Second, the shaft workpiece function, structural characteristics and technical standards

Shaft type workpiece is often encountered in machinery one of the typical workpiece. It is mainly used to support transmission components, transmission torque and load. Shaft workpiece is a rotating body parts, the length is greater than the diameter, usually by the concentric cylindrical outer cylindrical surface, conical surface, the hole and the thread and the corresponding end surface of the composition. Select the processing of various types of high-quality shaft parts look for titanium ho machinery, according to the different shape of the structure, the shaft can be divided into optical axis workpiece, ladder shaft, hollow shaft and crankshaft.

The aspect ratio of the shaft is less than 5 as short axis, more than 20 as slender shaft, most of the shaft in between.

Axis with bearing support, and bearing common shaft section called journal. Journals are the axis of the device benchmark, their accuracy and the outer surface of the higher quality requirements, the technical requirements are usually based on the main shaft functions and working conditions developed mainly the following:

(1) dimensional accuracy

In order to determine the position of the shaft, it usually requires high dimensional accuracy (IT5 ~ IT7). Assembly transmission parts of the journal size accuracy generally require less (IT6 ~ IT9).

(2) geometric shape accuracy

Shaft workpiece geometric shape accuracy mainly refers to the journal, outer cone, Morse taper, such as roundness, cylindricity, etc., should generally be limited to the tolerance within the size tolerance. Accuracy requirements of the inner and outer circular surface, the drawings should be marked on the allowable error.

(3) mutual position accuracy

The requirements for the position accuracy of a shaft-type workpiece are mainly determined by the position and function of the shaft in the machine. Normally, the concentricity of the journal of the assembly transmission part to the bearing journal should be ensured. Otherwise, the transmission precision of the transmission parts (gears, etc.) will be affected and noises will occur. Ordinary accuracy of the shaft, the shaft with the journal of the radial runout is usually 0.01 ~ 0.03mm, high-precision shaft (such as the spindle) is generally 0.001 ~ 0.005mm.

(4) the outer surface roughness

Usually with the transmission parts of the shaft diameter of the outer surface roughness Ra2.5 ~ 0.63μm, and the bearings match the support shaft diameter of the outer surface roughness Ra0.63 ~ 0.16μm.

Keywords: Shaft processing           

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